Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

An Overview of Importance of Breastfeeding

Foad Alimoradi 1 , Maryam Javadi 1 , Ameneh Barikani 2 , * , Naser Kalantari 3 and Mohamad Ahmadi 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
2 Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
3 Department of Community Nutrition, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics: May 01, 2014, 5 (2); e14028
  • Published Online: May 1, 2014
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: August 4, 2013
  • Revised: February 17, 2014
  • Accepted: April 11, 2014
  • DOI: 10.17795/compreped-14028

To Cite: Alimoradi F, Javadi M, Barikani A, Kalantari N, Ahmadi M. An Overview of Importance of Breastfeeding, J Compr Ped. 2014 ; 5(2):e14028. doi: 10.17795/compreped-14028.

Copyright © 2014, Iranian Society of Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Kalantari N, Haghighian Roudsari A. Breastfeeding Promotion in Iran: Opportunities and Challenges. J Compr Ped. 2013; 3(5): 165-6
  • 2. Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007; (153): 1-186[PubMed]
  • 3. Lonnerdal B. Breast milk: a truly functional food. Nutrition. 2000; 16(7-8): 509-11[PubMed]
  • 4. Gill SL, Reifsnider E, Lucke JF, Mann AR. Predicting breast-feeding attrition: adapting the breast-feeding attrition prediction tool. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2007; 21(3): 216-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Li W, Hosseinian FS, Tsopmo A, Friel JK, Beta T. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of breast milk. Nutrition. 2009; 25(1): 105-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Hoppu U, Rinne M, Salo-Vaananen P, Lampi AM, Piironen V, Isolauri E. Vitamin C in breast milk may reduce the risk of atopy in the infant. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59(1): 123-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Quigley MA, Kelly YJ, Sacker A. Breastfeeding and hospitalization for diarrheal and respiratory infection in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(4)-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Fisk CM, Crozier SR, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Roberts GC, et al. Breastfeeding and reported morbidity during infancy: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey. Matern Child Nutr. 2011; 7(1): 61-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. E zia GM. Relationship between Delivery Type and Successful Breastfeeding. Iran J Pediatr. 2008; 18
  • 10. Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic Review. 2009;
  • 11. Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.5 y: evidence from a large randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86(6): 1717-21[PubMed]
  • 12. Arenz S, Ruckerl R, Koletzko B, von Kries R. Breast-feeding and childhood obesity--a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004; 28(10): 1247-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Koletzko B. Long-term consequences of early feeding on later obesity risk. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2006; 58: 1-18[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Mayer-Davis EJ, Rifas-Shiman SL, Zhou L, Hu FB, Colditz GA, Gillman MW. Breast-feeding and risk for childhood obesity: does maternal diabetes or obesity status matter? Diabetes Care. 2006; 29(10): 2231-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Shields L, O'Callaghan M, Williams GM, Najman JM, Bor W. Breastfeeding and obesity at 14 years: a cohort study. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006; 42(5): 289-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Smith GD, Cook DG. Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84(5): 1043-54[PubMed]
  • 17. Gunderson EP. Breast-feeding and diabetes: long-term impact on mothers and their infants. Curr Diab Rep. 2008; 8(4): 279-86[PubMed]
  • 18. Bernard JY, De Agostini M, Forhan A, Alfaiate T, Bonet M, Champion V, et al. Breastfeeding duration and cognitive development at 2 and 3 years of age in the EDEN mother-child cohort. J Pediatr. 2013; 163(1): 36-42 e1[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. The State of Breastfeeding in 33 Countries. 2010;
  • 20. Gillman MW, Mantzoros CS. Breast-feeding, adipokines, and childhood obesity. Epidemiology. 2007; 18(6): 730-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Adair LS. Methods appropriate for studying the relationship of breast-feeding to obesity. J Nutr. 2009; 139(2): 408S-11S[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Koubaa AA, Abed NB, Cheikhrouhou H, Dahmen H, Askri M, Ouerfelli N, et al. [Protective effect of breast feeding in childhood obesity]. Tunis Med. 2008; 86(1): 38-42[PubMed]
  • 23. Gartner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, Naylor AJ, O'Hare D, Schanler RJ, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005; 115(2): 496-506[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Khuc K, Blanco E, Burrows R, Reyes M, Castillo M, Lozoff B, et al. Adolescent metabolic syndrome risk is increased with higher infancy weight gain and decreased with longer breast feeding. Int J Pediatr. 2012; 2012: 478610[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Lupton SJ, Chiu CL, Lujic S, Hennessy A, Lind JM. Association between parity and breastfeeding with maternal high blood pressure. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 208(6): 454 e1-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Natland ST, Nilsen TI, Midthjell K, Andersen LF, Forsmo S. Lactation and cardiovascular risk factors in mothers in a population-based study: the HUNT-study. Int Breastfeed J. 2012; 7(1): 8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Das S, Sen S, Mukherjee A, Chakraborty D, Mondal PK. Risk factors of breast cancer among women in eastern India: a tertiary hospital based case control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(10): 4979-81[PubMed]
  • 28. Redondo CM, Gago-Dominguez M, Ponte SM, Castelo ME, Jiang X, Garcia AA, et al. Breast feeding, parity and breast cancer subtypes in a Spanish cohort. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Semrau K, Kuhn L, Brooks DR, Cabral H, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding, maternal HIV disease, and the risk of clinical breast pathology in HIV-infected, breastfeeding women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 205(4): 344 e1-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Serva WA, Serva VM, Caminha Mde F, Figueiroa JN, Serva GB, Valenca MM. Exclusive breastfeeding protects against postpartum migraine recurrence attacks? Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012; 70(6): 428-34[PubMed]
  • 31. Sances G, Granella F, Nappi RE, Fignon A, Ghiotto N, Polatti F, et al. Course of migraine during pregnancy and postpartum: a prospective study. Cephalalgia. 2003; 23(3): 197-205[PubMed]
  • 32. Poorhassan H GF, Heidarpoor F, Timare M. Studying Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Treatment-Health Centers of Kermanshah in 2009. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2011; 15(3): 14-9
  • 33. Boccolini CS, Boccolini Pde M, de Carvalho ML, de Oliveira MI. [Exclusive breastfeeding and diarrhea hospitalization patterns between 1999 and 2008 in Brazilian State Capitals]. Cien Saude Colet. 2012; 17(7): 1857-63[PubMed]
  • 34. Agrasada GV, Ewald U, Kylberg E, Gustafsson J. Exclusive breastfeeding of low birth weight infants for the first six months: infant morbidity and maternal and infant anthropometry. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011; 20(1): 62-8[PubMed]
  • 35. Quigley MA, Cumberland P, Cowden JM, Rodrigues LC. How protective is breast feeding against diarrhoeal disease in infants in 1990s England? A case-control study. Arch Dis Child. 2006; 91(3): 245-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. McCarter-Spaulding D, Gore R. Breastfeeding self-efficacy in women of African descent. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2009; 38(2): 230-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Salehi Abarghooyi A, Omidvar N, Rashid Khani B. The Relationship between Pattern of Breastfeeding and Myopia in 6-7 years old children. Hakim Res J. 2009; 7(3): 3-7
  • 38. Fernandez L, Langa S, Martin V, Maldonado A, Jimenez E, Martin R, et al. The human milk microbiota: origin and potential roles in health and disease. Pharmacol Res. 2013; 69(1): 1-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Cornall D. A review of the breastfeeding literature relevant to osteopathic practice. Int J Osteopath Med. 2011; 14(2): 61-6[DOI]
  • 40. IbrahiMzadeker B, Abadi R. The prevalence of obesity and its Relationship with Mother's age, Birth Interval and Type of Milk Consumption in Children under 5 years in Torkaman Seaport City. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2012; 19(4): 384-91
  • 41. Kalantari N, Rashid Khani B. The Relationship between Overweight and Obesity first grade children and breastfeeding pattern in Shiraz, Weight and Socio - economic Status in 2009-2010. Iran Food Sci Nutr. 2011; 5(3): 19-28
  • 42. Soltani R, Afaq R, Ghanbari A. Relationship between Breast Milk and Body Mass Index in High School children in Rasht. Nursing Res. 2010; 5(19): 35-44
  • 43. Soheylifar J, Emdadi M. [The Relationship between Breastfeeding and Overweight and Obesity among High School children in Hamedan]. Hamedan J Med Sci. 2005; 7(2): 11
  • 44. Vafa MR, Moslehi N, Salehpoor A, Husseini F, Gohari Nejad M. Nutrition Type during Infancy and its Correlation with Childhood Obesity in first-grade Students in Tehran in 2008. Iran J Endocrin Metabol. 2010; 7(5): 505-12
  • 45. Burke V, Beilin LJ, Simmer K, Oddy WH, Blake KV, Doherty D, et al. Breastfeeding and overweight: longitudinal analysis in an Australian birth cohort. J Pediatr. 2005; 147(1): 56-61[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Horta BL. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding. 2007;
  • 47. Shields L, Mamun AA, O'Callaghan M, Williams GM, Najman JM. Breastfeeding and obesity at 21 years: a cohort study. J Clin Nurs. 2010; 19(11-12): 1612-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. Nelson MC, Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS. Are adolescents who were breast-fed less likely to be overweight? Analyses of sibling pairs to reduce confounding. Epidemiology. 2005; 16(2): 247-53[PubMed]
  • 49. Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. A randomized breast-feeding promotion intervention did not reduce child obesity in Belarus. J Nutr. 2009; 139(2): 417S-21S[DOI][PubMed]
  • 50. Ijarotimi OS. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Nutr Res Pract. 2010; 4(3): 222-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Rosenbauer J, Herzig P, Giani G. Early infant feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus-a nationwide population-based case-control study in pre-school children. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008; 24(3): 211-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Mayer-Davis EJ, Dabelea D, Lamichhane AP, D'Agostino RB, Jr., Liese AD, Thomas J, et al. Breast-feeding and type 2 diabetes in the youth of three ethnic groups: the SEARCh for diabetes in youth case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31(3): 470-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 53. Villegas R, Gao YT, Yang G, Li HL, Elasy T, Zheng W, et al. Duration of breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Diabetologia. 2008; 51(2): 258-66[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Schwarz EB, Brown JS, Creasman JM, Stuebe A, McClure CK, Van Den Eeden SK, et al. Lactation and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Am J Med. 2010; 123(9): 863 e1-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, Manson JE, Michels KB. Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2005; 294(20): 2601-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Stuebe AM, Schwarz EB, Grewen K, Rich-Edwards JW, Michels KB, Foster EM, et al. Duration of lactation and incidence of maternal hypertension: a longitudinal cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011; 174(10): 1147-58[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Miladi Gorgi H, Ibrahamian AA. The Relationship between Breastfeeding in Infancy and Blood Pressure in Early Adulthood. Hormozgan J Med Sci. 2007; 7(3): 187-95
  • 58. Stuebe AM, Willett WC, Xue F, Michels KB. Lactation and incidence of premenopausal breast cancer: a longitudinal study. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169(15): 1364-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 59. Schnooyi S, Khalkhaali HR, Karami YM, Rahimi-Rad MH. The Relationship between Duration of Breastfeeding and Risk of Asthma in 2-8 years old children. Urmia Med J. 2012; 23(1): 1-6
  • 60. Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt R, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. Effect of prolonged and exclusive breast feeding on risk of allergy and asthma: cluster randomised trial. BMJ. 2007; 335(7624): 815[DOI][PubMed]
  • 61. Silvers KM, Frampton CM, Wickens K, Epton MJ, Pattemore PK, Ingham T, et al. Breastfeeding protects against adverse respiratory outcomes at 15 months of age. Matern Child Nutr. 2009; 5(3): 243-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 62. Silvers KM, Frampton CM, Wickens K, Pattemore PK, Ingham T, Fishwick D, et al. Breastfeeding protects against current asthma up to 6 years of age. J Pediatr. 2012; 160(6): 991-6 e1[DOI][PubMed]
  • 63. Sun Y, Vestergaard M, Christensen J, Olsen J. Breastfeeding and risk of epilepsy in childhood: a birth cohort study. J Pediatr. 2011; 158(6): 924-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 64. Kramer MS, Aboud F, Mironova E, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Matush L, et al. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008; 65(5): 578-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 65. Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. [Breast feeding and intelligence]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2003; 165(13): 1361-6[PubMed]
  • 66. Quigley MA, Hockley C, Carson C, Kelly Y, Renfrew MJ, Sacker A. Breastfeeding is associated with improved child cognitive development: a population-based cohort study. J Pediatr. 2012; 160(1): 25-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 67. McCrory C, Layte R. The effect of breastfeeding on children's educational test scores at nine years of age: results of an Irish cohort study. Soc Sci Med. 2011; 72(9): 1515-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 68. Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. The association between duration of breastfeeding and adult intelligence. JAMA. 2002; 287(18): 2365-71[PubMed]
  • 69. Whitehouse AJ, Robinson M, Li J, Oddy WH. Duration of breast feeding and language ability in middle childhood. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2011; 25(1): 44-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 70. Guxens M, Mendez MA, Molto-Puigmarti C, Julvez J, Garcia-Esteban R, Forns J, et al. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development. Pediatrics. 2011; 128(4)-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 71. Al-Farsi YM, Al-Sharbati MM, Waly MI, Al-Farsi OA, Al-Shafaee MA, Al-Khaduri MM, et al. Effect of suboptimal breast-feeding on occurrence of autism: a case-control study. Nutrition. 2012; 28(7-8)-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 72. Sabuncuoglu O. Understanding the relationships between breastfeeding, malocclusion, ADHD, sleep-disordered breathing and traumatic dental injuries. Med Hypotheses. 2013; 80(3): 315-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 73. Nishioka E, Haruna M, Ota E, Matsuzaki M, Murayama R, Yoshimura K, et al. A prospective study of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depressive symptoms appearing at 1-5 months after delivery. J Affect Disord. 2011; 133(3): 553-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 74. do Carmo Franca-Botelho A, Ferreira MC, Franca JL, Franca EL, Honorio-Franca AC. Breastfeeding and its relationship with reduction of breast cancer: a review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(11): 5327-32[PubMed]
  • 75. Ram KT, Bobby P, Hailpern SM, Lo JC, Schocken M, Skurnick J, et al. Duration of lactation is associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in midlife--SWAN, the study of women's health across the nation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 198(3): 268 e1-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 76. Gunderson EP, Jacobs DR, Jr., Chiang V, Lewis CE, Feng J, Quesenberry CP, Jr., et al. Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults). Diabetes. 2010; 59(2): 495-504[DOI][PubMed]
  • 77. Stuebe AM, Michels KB, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rexrode K, Rich-Edwards JW. Duration of lactation and incidence of myocardial infarction in middle to late adulthood. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 200(2): 138 e1-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 78. Schwarz EB, Ray RM, Stuebe AM, Allison MA, Ness RB, Freiberg MS, et al. Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 113(5): 974-82[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments