Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Clinical Characteristics of Down Syndrome Children With Congenital Heart Disease in a Developing Country

Hassan Mottaghi Moghaddam 1 , Toktam Sheykhian 1 and Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Pediatrics, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
2 Department of Community Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics: November 01, 2015, 6 (4); e29682
  • Published Online: November 23, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 11, 2015
  • Revised: September 4, 2015
  • Accepted: November 14, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/compreped.19826

To Cite: Mottaghi Moghaddam H, Sheykhian T, Dadgarmoghaddam M. Clinical Characteristics of Down Syndrome Children With Congenital Heart Disease in a Developing Country, J Compr Ped. 2015 ; 6(4):e29682. doi: 10.5812/compreped.19826.

Copyright © 2015, Iranian Society of Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Janet HC. Down's Syndrome: Children Growing Up. 2012; : 140-52
  • 2. Ait Yahya-Graison E, Aubert J, Dauphinot L, Rivals I, Prieur M, Golfier G, et al. Classification of human chromosome 21 gene-expression variations in Down syndrome: impact on disease phenotypes. Am J Hum Genet. 2007; 81(3): 475-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Pueschel SM, Anneren G, Durlach R, Flores J, Sustrova M, Verma IC. Guidelines for optimal medical care of persons with Down syndrome. International League of Societies for Persons with Mental Handicap (ILSMH). Acta Paediatr. 1995; 84(7): 823-7[PubMed]
  • 4. Muchova J, Sustrova M, Garaiova I, Liptakova A, Blazicek P, Kvasnicka P, et al. Influence of age on activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in erythrocytes and neutrophils of Down syndrome patients. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001; 31(4): 499-508[PubMed]
  • 5. Anderson RH. Simplifying the understanding of congenital malformations of the heart. Int J Cardiol. 1991; 32(2): 131-42[PubMed]
  • 6. Akbari-Asbagh P, Ghasemi M, Zamani A. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in children with Down's syndrome in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran. Iran J Pediatr. 2007; 17(1): 95-9
  • 7. Martinez-Quintana E, Rodríguez-González F, Medina-Gil JM, Ágredo-Muñoz J, Nieto-Lago V. Clinical outcome in Down syndrome patients with congenital heart disease. Cirugia y cirujanos. 2009; 78(3): 245-50
  • 8. Behrman R, Daniel B, Michael G, Richard E, Hal B. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 2011; : 1551-601
  • 9. Sherman SL, Allen EG, Bean LH, Freeman SB. Epidemiology of Down syndrome. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2007; 13(3): 221-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Bull MJ, Committee on G. Health supervision for children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics. 2011; 128(2): 393-406[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Girirajan S. Parental-age effects in Down syndrome. J Genet. 2009; 88(1): 1-7[PubMed]
  • 12. Rahim F, Ebadi A, Saki G, Remazani A. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in iran: a clinical study. J Med Sci. 2008; 8(6): 547-52
  • 13. Hoshi N, Hattori R, Hanatani K, Okuyama K, Yamada H, Kishida T, et al. Recent trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome in Japan, 1980-1997. Am J Med Genet. 1999; 84(4): 340-5[PubMed]
  • 14. Carothers AD, Hecht CA, Hook EB. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age. J Med Genet. 1999; 36(5): 386-93[PubMed]
  • 15. Lopez PM, Stone D, Gilmour H. Epidemiology of Down's syndrome in a Scottish city. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1995; 9(3): 331-40[PubMed]
  • 16. Rosch C, Steinbicker V, Kropf S. Down's syndrome: the effects of prenatal diagnosis and demographic factors in a region of the eastern part of Germany. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000; 16(7): 627-32[PubMed]
  • 17. Torfs CP, Christianson RE. Effect of maternal smoking and coffee consumption on the risk of having a recognized Down syndrome pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 152(12): 1185-91[PubMed]
  • 18. Kallen B, Mastroiacovo P, Robert E. Major congenital malformations in Down syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1996; 65(2): 160-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Kriss VM. Down syndrome: imaging of multiorgan involvement. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1999; 38(8): 441-9[PubMed]
  • 20. Mackey J, Treem WR, Worley G, Boney A, Hart P, Kishnani PS. Frequency of celiac disease in individuals with Down syndrome in the United States. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2001; 40(5): 249-52[PubMed]
  • 21. Venail F, Gardiner Q, Mondain M. ENT and speech disorders in children with Down's syndrome: an overview of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, and current management. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004; 43(9): 783-91[PubMed]
  • 22. Dzurova D, Pikhart H. Down syndrome, paternal age and education: comparison of California and the Czech Republic. BMC Public Health. 2005; 5: 69[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Morris JK, Alberman E, Mutton D, Jacobs P. Cytogenetic and epidemiological findings in Down syndrome: England and Wales 1989-2009. Am J Med Genet A. 2012; 158a(5): 1151-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments