Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

The Relationship between Maternal and Neonatal Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and their Correlation with Neonatal Anthropometric Indices

Zohreh Torabi 1 , Mohammad Halvachi 2 , Mehran Mohseni 3 and Hamid Khederlou 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Pediatrics, Mousavi Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran
2 Student Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran
3 Department of Food and Drug Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zanjan Universiy of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics: February 2018, 9 (1); e55056
  • Published Online: February 28, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: June 15, 2017
  • Accepted: January 20, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/compreped.55056

To Cite: Torabi Z, Halvachi M, Mohseni M, Khederlou H. The Relationship between Maternal and Neonatal Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and their Correlation with Neonatal Anthropometric Indices, J Compr Ped. 2018 ; 9(1):e55056. doi: 10.5812/compreped.55056.

Copyright © 2018, Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Lin CM, Doyle P, Wang D, Hwang YH, Chen PC. The role of essential metals in the placental transfer of lead from mother to child. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29(4):443-6. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.03.004. [PubMed: 20347956].
  • 2. Osman K, Akesson A, Berglund M, Bremme K, Schutz A, Ask K, et al. Toxic and essential elements in placentas of swedish women. Clin Biochem. 2000;33(2):131-8. doi: 10.1016/s0009-9120(00)00052-7.
  • 3. Baranowska I. Lead and cadmium in human placentas and maternal and neonatal blood (in a heavily polluted area) measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Occup Environ Med. 1995;52(4):229-32. [PubMed: 7795737].
  • 4. Bellinger DC. Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73(6):409-20. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20127. [PubMed: 15880700].
  • 5. Baghurst PA, McMichael AJ, Vimpani GV, Robertson EF, Clark PD, Wigg NR. Determinants of blood lead concentrations of pregnant women living in Port Pirie and surrounding areas. Med J Aust. 1987;146(2):69-73. [PubMed: 3796424].
  • 6. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, et al. Heavy Metal poisoning, principal of international medicine Harrison. McGraw-Hill; 1998.
  • 7. Venna IC. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70(11):892.
  • 8. Hodgson E, Levi PE. A textbook of modern toxicology. New York: Elsevier; 1987.
  • 9. Jacob B, Ritz B, Heinrich J, Hoelscher B, Wichmann HE. The effect of low-level blood lead on hematologic parameters in children. Environ Res. 2000;82(2):150-9. doi: 10.1006/enrs.1999.4011. [PubMed: 10662529].
  • 10. Goyer RA. Toxic effects of metals. Casarette and Doulls' toxicology: Thebasic sciences of poisons. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996.
  • 11. Juberg DR, Kleiman CF, Kwon SC. Position paper of the American Council on Science and Health: lead and human health. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1997;38(3):162-80. doi: 10.1006/eesa.1997.1591. [PubMed: 9469866].
  • 12. Golmohammadi T, Ansari M, Nikzamir AR, Safari-Abhari R, Elahi S. The effect of maternal and fetal lead concentration on birth weight: polluted versus non-polluted areas of Iran. Tehran Univ Med J. 2007;65:74-8.
  • 13. Tétreault J, Sirois J, Stamatopoulou E, Tetreault J, Stamatopoulou E. Studies of Lead Corrosion in Acetic Acid Environments. Stud Conservat. 1998;43(1):17. doi: 10.2307/1506633.
  • 14. Lewis AE. Review of metal sulphide precipitation. Hydrometallurgy. 2010;104(2):222-34. doi: 10.1016/j.hydromet.2010.06.010.
  • 15. Rastogi S, Nandlike K, Fenster W. Elevated blood lead levels in pregnant women: identification of a high-risk population and interventions. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(6):492-6. doi: 10.1515/JPM.2007.131. [PubMed: 18052836].
  • 16. Kasznia-Kocot J. Lead in cord blood of neonates from Chorzow (upper Silesia). Pol J Environ Stud. 1999;8:309-12.
  • 17. Ahamed M, Mehrotra PK, Kumar P, Siddiqui MK. Placental lead-induced oxidative stress and preterm delivery. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;27(1):70-4. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2008.08.013. [PubMed: 21783923].
  • 18. Kaufmann RB, Clouse TL, Olson DR, Matte TD. Elevated blood lead levels and blood lead screening among US children aged one to five years: 1988–1994. Pediatrics. 2000;106(6):e79.
  • 19. Mendelsohn AL, Dreyer BP, Fierman AH, Rosen CM, Legano LA, Kruger HA, et al. Low-level lead exposure and cognitive development in early childhood. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1999;20(6):425-31. [PubMed: 10608372].
  • 20. Needleman HL. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(12):1871-7. [PubMed: 9842392].
  • 21. Lanphear BP, Weitzman M, Winter NL, Eberly S, Yakir B, Tanner M, et al. Lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(10):1416-21. [PubMed: 8876511].
  • 22. Borja-Aburto VH, Hertz-Picciotto I, Rojas Lopez M, Farias P, Rios C, Blanco J. Blood lead levels measured prospectively and risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(6):590-7. [PubMed: 10489998].
  • 23. Hertz-Picciotto I. The evidence that lead increases the risk for spontaneous abortion. Am J Ind Med. 2000;38(3):300-9. [PubMed: 10940968].
  • 24. Berkowitz Z, Price-Green P, Bove FJ, Kaye WE. Lead exposure and birth outcomes in five communities in Shoshone County, Idaho. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2006;209(2):123-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2005.11.001. [PubMed: 16376613].
  • 25. Metrohm . Voltammetry-an introduction in theory. 2001.
  • 26. Andrews KW, Savitz DA, Hertz-Picciotto I. Prenatal lead exposure in relation to gestational age and birth weight: a review of epidemiologic studies. Am J Ind Med. 1994;26(1):13-32. [PubMed: 8074121].
  • 27. Jelliffe-Pawlowski LL, Miles SQ, Courtney JG, Materna B, Charlton V. Effect of magnitude and timing of maternal pregnancy blood lead (Pb) levels on birth outcomes. J Perinatol. 2006;26(3):154-62. doi: 10.1038/ [PubMed: 16453008].
  • 28. Afeiche M, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Cantonwine D, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, et al. Prenatal lead exposure and weight of 0- to 5-year-old children in Mexico city. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(10):1436-41. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003184. [PubMed: 21715242].
  • 29. Gonzalez-Cossio T, Peterson KE, Sanin LH, Fishbein E, Palazuelos E, Aro A, et al. Decrease in birth weight in relation to maternal bone-lead burden. Pediatrics. 1997;100(5):856-62. [PubMed: 9346987].
  • 30. Chen PC, Pan IJ, Wang JD. Parental exposure to lead and small for gestational age births. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49(6):417-22. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20313. [PubMed: 16586408].
  • 31. Kaul PP, Srivastava R, Srivastava SP, Kamboj M, Chand S. Relationships of maternal blood lead and disorders of pregnancy to neonatal birthweight. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44(6):321-3. [PubMed: 12458631].
  • 32. Mirghani Z. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(12):1027-30. [PubMed: 21381557].
  • 33. Al-Saleh I, Shinwari N, Mashhour A, Rabah A. Birth outcome measures and maternal exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in Saudi Arabian population. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217(2-3):205-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.04.009. [PubMed: 23735463].
  • 34. Hackley B, Katz-Jacobson A. Lead poisoning in pregnancy: a case study with implications for midwives. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2003;48(1):30-8. [PubMed: 12589303].
  • 35. Iranpour R, Besharati AA, Nasseri F, Hashemipour M, Balali-Mood M, Kelishadi R. Comparison of blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded neonates and normal term neonates. Saudi Med J. 2007;28(6):877-80. [PubMed: 17530103].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments