Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

The Comparative Study on Pediatric Triage Decision-Making Power in Nurses and Nursing Students: A Cross Sectional Study

Somaye Pouy 1 , Zahra Taheri Ezbarami 2 , * and Seyyed Zahra Shafipour 2
Authors Information
1 Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
2 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics: February 28, 2019, 10 (1); e80846
  • Published Online: February 17, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: June 13, 2018
  • Revised: September 1, 2018
  • Accepted: September 19, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/compreped.80846

To Cite: Pouy S, Taheri Ezbarami Z , Shafipour S Z. The Comparative Study on Pediatric Triage Decision-Making Power in Nurses and Nursing Students: A Cross Sectional Study, J Compr Ped. 2019 ; 10(1):e80846. doi: 10.5812/compreped.80846.

Copyright © 2019, Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Andersson AK, Omberg M, Svedlund M. Triage in the emergency department--a qualitative study of the factors which nurses consider when making decisions. Nurs Crit Care. 2006;11(3):136-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1362-1017.2006.00162.x. [PubMed: 16719019].
  • 2. Wollaston A, Fahey P, McKay M, Hegney D, Miller P, Wollaston J. Reliability and validity of the Toowoomba adult trauma triage tool: A Queensland, Australia study. Accid Emerg Nurs. 2004;12(4):230-7. doi: 10.1016/j.aaen.2004.07.003. [PubMed: 15474348].
  • 3. Scrofine S, Fitzsimons V. Triage: The sorting of patients. J Emerg Nurs. 2014;40(3):289-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2014.03.004. [PubMed: 24810510].
  • 4. Reinhardt MR. A systematic approach to evaluation of performance deficiencies in ED triage. J Emerg Nurs. 2017;43(4):329-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2017.01.003. [PubMed: 28366243].
  • 5. Fung Kon Jin PH, van Olffen TB, Goslings JC, Luitse JS, Ponsen KJ. In-hospital downgrading of the trauma team: Validation of the Academic Medical Center downgrading criteria. Injury. 2006;37(1):33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2005.05.045. [PubMed: 16256114].
  • 6. Greene J, Hall J. The comparability of emergency department waiting time performance data. Med J Aust. 2012;197(6):345-8. doi: 10.5694/mja11.11246. [PubMed: 22994833].
  • 7. Gerdtz MF, Weiland TJ, Jelinek GA, Mackinlay C, Hill N. Perspectives of emergency department staff on the triage of mental health-related presentations: Implications for education, policy and practice. Emerg Med Australas. 2012;24(5):492-500. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2012.01592.x. [PubMed: 23039290].
  • 8. Esmailian M, Zamani M, Azadi F, Ghasemi F. Inter-rater agreement of emergency nurses and physicians in emergency severity index (ESI) triage. Emerg (Tehran). 2014;2(4):158-61. [PubMed: 26495372]. [PubMed Central: PMC4614563].
  • 9. Considine J, Botti M, Thomas S. Do knowledge and experience have specific roles in triage decision-making? Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14(8):722-6. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2007.04.015. [PubMed: 17656608].
  • 10. Cone KJ, Murray R. Characteristics, insights, decision making, and preparation of ED triage nurses. J Emerg Nurs. 2002;28(5):401-6. doi: 10.1067/men.2002.127513. [PubMed: 12386620].
  • 11. Smith A, Lollar J, Mendenhall J, Brown H, Johnson P, Roberts S. Use of multiple pedagogies to promote confidence in triage decision making: A pilot study. J Emerg Nurs. 2013;39(6):660-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2011.12.007. [PubMed: 22421315].
  • 12. Göransson KE. Registered nurse-led emergency department triage. Australas Emerg Nurs J. 2007;10(4):202. doi: 10.1016/j.aenj.2007.09.038.
  • 13. Smith AJ. Assessing confidence in triage decision making: evaluation of an inventory in a sample of navy and civilian nurses. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2012;28(3):132-6. doi: 10.1097/NND.0b013e3182551531. [PubMed: 22617784].
  • 14. Aloyce R, Leshabari S, Brysiewicz P. Assessment of knowledge and skills of triage amongst nurses working in the emergency centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Afr J Emerg Med. 2014;4(1):14-8. doi: 10.1016/j.afjem.2013.04.009.
  • 15. Fathoni M, Sangchan H, Songwathana P. Triage knowledge and skills among emergency nurses in East Java province, Indonesia. Australas Emerg Nurs J. 2010;13(4):153. doi: 10.1016/j.aenj.2010.08.304.
  • 16. Dateo J. What factors increase the accuracy and inter-rater reliability of the Emergency Severity Index among emergency nurses in triaging adult patients? J Emerg Nurs. 2013;39(2):203-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2011.09.002. [PubMed: 22079643].
  • 17. Kazeminezhad B, Taghinejad H, Borji M, Tarjoman A. The effect of self-care on glycated hemoglobin and fasting blood sugar levels on adolescents with diabetes. J Compr Ped. 2018;9(2). e62661. doi: 10.5812/compreped.62661.
  • 18. Borji M, Shahbazi F, Nariman S, Otaghi M, Safari S. Investigating the relationship between mother-child bonding and maternal mental health. J Compr Ped. 2018;9(1). e14014. doi: 10.5812/compreped.14014.
  • 19. Sharifi A, Motaghi M, Borji M, Moradi M. The effect of orange essence aromatherapy on anxiety in school-age children with diabetes. Biomed Pharmacol Jo. 2017;10(1):159-64. doi: 10.13005/bpj/1093.
  • 20. Borji M, Moradi M, Otaghi M, Tartjoman A. Relationship between nutritional status, food insecurity, and causes of hospitalization of children with infectious diseases. J Compr Ped. 2018;9(2). e63870. doi: 10.5812/compreped.63870.
  • 21. Vasigh A, Abdi A, Borji M, Tarjoman A. The prevalence of neuropathy among type 1 diabetic adolescents in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2019;Forthcoming. doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2018-0223. [PubMed: 30685741].
  • 22. Shohani M, Abedi L, Rasouli M. Professional attitude in Iranian nursing students. J Clin Diagn Res. 2018;12(6). doi: 10.7860/jcdr/2018/27804.11649.
  • 23. Shohani M, Rasouli M, Sahebi A. The level of professional autonomy in iranian nurses. J Clin Diagn Res. 2018;12(5). doi: 10.7860/jcdr/2018/31249.11465.
  • 24. Koziel JR, Meckler G, Brown L, Acker D, Torino M, Walsh B, et al. Barriers to pediatric disaster triage: A qualitative investigation. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2015;19(2):279-86. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2014.967428. [PubMed: 25349899].
  • 25. Hohenhaus SM, Travers D, Mecham N. Pediatric triage: A review of emergency education literature. J Emerg Nurs. 2008;34(4):308-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2007.06.022. [PubMed: 18640410].
  • 26. Göransson K. Registered nurse-led emergency department triage: organisation, allocation of acuity ratings and triage decision making [dissertation]. Örebro universitetsbibliotek; 2006.
  • 27. Garbez R, Carrieri-Kohlman V, Stotts N, Chan G, Neighbor M. Factors influencing patient assignment to level 2 and level 3 within the 5-level ESI triage system. J Emerg Nurs. 2011;37(6):526-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2010.07.010. [PubMed: 22074652].
  • 28. Fry M, Burr G. Current triage practice and influences affecting clinical decision-making in emergency departments in NSW, Australia. Accid Emerg Nurs. 2001;9(4):227-34. doi: 10.1054/aaen.2001.0268. [PubMed: 11855762].
  • 29. Clarke DE, Boyce-Gaudreau K, Sanderson A, Baker JA. ED triage decision-making with mental health presentations: A "think aloud" study. J Emerg Nurs. 2015;41(6):496-502. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2015.04.016. [PubMed: 26033786].
  • 30. Vatnoy TK, Fossum M, Smith N, Slettebo S. Triage assessment of registered nurses in the emergency department. Int Emerg Nurs. 2013;21(2):89-96. doi: 10.1016/j.ienj.2012.06.004. [PubMed: 23615515].
  • 31. Ponsiglione C, Ippolito A, Primario S, Zollo G. Configurations of factors affecting triage decision-making: A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Manage Decis. 2018;56(10):2148-71. doi: 10.1108/md-10-2017-0999.
  • 32. [No authors listed]. Triage qualifications and competency. J Emerg Nurs. 2017;43(6):571-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2017.08.008. [PubMed: 29100570].
  • 33. Smith A, Cone KJ. Triage decision-making skills: A necessity for all nurses. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2010;26(1):E14-9. doi: 10.1097/NND.0b013e3181bec1e6. [PubMed: 20098163].
  • 34. Woolwich C. Nurse triage. Accident and emergency theory into practice edinburgh. Bailliere Tindall; 2000. p. 475-84.
  • 35. Domagala SE, Vets J. Emergency nursing triage: Keeping it safe. J Emerg Nurs. 2015;41(4):313-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2015.01.022. [PubMed: 25790931].
  • 36. Stanfield LM. Clinical decision making in triage: An integrative review. J Emerg Nurs. 2015;41(5):396-403. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2015.02.003. [PubMed: 25814095].
  • 37. Mirhaghi AH, Roudbari M. A survey on knowledge level of the nurses about hospital triage. Iran J Crit Care Nurs. 2011;3(4):165-70.
  • 38. Geary U, Kennedy U. Clinical decision-making in emergency medicine. Emergencias. 2010;22:56-60.
  • 39. Goransson KE, Ehrenberg A, Ehnfors M. Triage in emergency departments: National survey. J Clin Nurs. 2005;14(9):1067-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2005.01191.x. [PubMed: 16164524].
  • 40. Anwar S, Tan W, Hong CC, Admane S, Dozier A, Siedlecki F, et al. Quality-of-life (QOL) during screening for phase 1 trial studies in patients with advanced solid tumors and its impact on risk for serious adverse events. Cancers (Basel). 2017;9(7). doi: 10.3390/cancers9070073. [PubMed: 28672850]. [PubMed Central: PMC5532609].
  • 41. Sayehmiri K, Tavan H, Sayehmiri F, Mohammadi I, V. Carson K . Prevalence of epilepsy in iran: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014;8(4):9-17. [PubMed: 25657765]. [PubMed Central: PMC4307363].
  • 42. Hatefi M, Jaafarpour M, Khani A, Khajavikhan J, Kokhazade T. The effect of whole body massage on the process and physiological outcome of trauma icu patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(6):UC05-8. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12756.6096. [PubMed: 26266191]. [PubMed Central: PMC4525581].
  • 43. Dadashzadeh A, Abdollahzadeh F, Lotfi M. The necessory experiences and educational activies for the role of triage in Tabriz emergency departments. Int J car Sci. 2008;10:31-7.
  • 44. Haghdoust Z, Safavi M, Yahyavi H. [Effect of triage education on knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses in Poursina Educational and Therapeutic Emergency Center in Rasht]. Guilan J Nurs Midwifery. 2009;20(64):14-21. Persian.
  • 45. Hammad K, Peng L, Anikeeva O, Arbon P, Du H, Li Y. Emergency nurses' knowledge and experience with the triage process in Hunan province, China. Int Emerg Nurs. 2017;35:25-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ienj.2017.05.007. [PubMed: 28655590].
  • 46. Martin A, Davidson CL, Panik A, Buckenmyer C, Delpais P, Ortiz M. An examination of ESI triage scoring accuracy in relationship to ED nursing attitudes and experience. J Emerg Nurs. 2014;40(5):461-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2013.09.009. [PubMed: 24290530].
  • 47. Taheri N, Kohan S, Haghdost AA, Foroogh Ameri A. The survey of knowledge and practice of Kerman University of medical sciences hospitals nurses about triage [dissertation]. Kerman: Kerman University of Medical Sciences; 2006. Persian.
  • 48. Chen SS, Chen JC, Ng CJ, Chen PL, Lee PH, Chang WY. Factors that influence the accuracy of triage nurses' judgement in emergency departments. Emerg Med J. 2010;27(6):451-5. doi: 10.1136/emj.2008.059311. [PubMed: 20562141].
  • 49. Hatefi M, Behzadi S, Dastjerdi MM, Ghahnavieh AA, Rahmani A, Mahdizadeh F, et al. Correlation of homocysteine with cerebral hemodynamic abnormality, endothelial dysfunction markers, and cognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury. World Neurosurg. 2017;97:70-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.09.080. [PubMed: 27693818].
  • 50. Khajavikhan J, Vasigh A, Khani A, Jaafarpour M, Kokhazade T. Outcome and predicting factor following severe traumatic brain injury: A retrospective cross-sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(2):PC16-9. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/16390.7294. [PubMed: 27042518]. [PubMed Central: PMC4800584].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments